Tag Archives: stellar nursery

Galactic neighbourhoods have an influence on stellar nurseries

Astronomers have completed the first in-depth census of molecular clouds in the nearby Universe. The study has revealed that these star-forming regions not only look different but also behave differently. This finding runs in opposition to previous scientific consensus, which considered these clouds of dust and gas to be fairly uniform.

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) scientists conducted a census of nearly 100 galaxies in the nearby Universe. (ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/S. Dagnello (NRAO))

The project–Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS (PHANGS)–consisted of a systematic survey of 100,000 molecular clouds in 90 galaxies in the local Universe. The primary aim of the PHANGS was to get an idea of how these star-forming regions are influenced by their parent galaxies.

The census was conducted with the use of the Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array (ALMA) located on the Chajnantor plateau, in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Whilst not marking the first time stellar nurseries have been studied with ALMA, this is the first census of its kind to observe globular clusters across more than either one galaxy or a small region of a single galaxy.

“We have carried out the first real ‘census’ of these stellar nurseries, and it provided us with details about their masses, locations, and other properties,” Adam Leroy, Associate Professor of Astronomy at Ohio State University (OSU) tells ZME Science. “Some people thought that all stellar nurseries across every galaxy look more or less the same, and it took having a really big, sensitive, and high-resolution survey of many galaxies with a telescope such as ALMA to see that this is not the case. This survey allows us to see how the stellar nurseries change across different galaxies. “

As a result, this is the first time that astronomers have been granted a look at the ‘big picture’ when it comes to these star-forming regions. Erik Rosolowsky, Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta, and a co-author of the research points out that what ALMA has allowed the team of astronomers to create is essentially a new form of ‘cosmic cartography’ consisting of 90 maps of unparalleled detail detailing the regions of space where the next generation of stars will be born.

“By doing this we will combine what we are learning from ALMA about the clouds that form stars with pictures of newly formed stars from these other telescopes. This promises to give us the best view ever of the full life cycle of these stellar nurseries, and our most complete picture ever of the full cycle of star birth and death.”

Left: NGC 2903 galaxy on GALEX sky survey Right: CO(2–1) emission measured by PHANGS–ALMA for NGC 2903 The high-resolution view shows clumpy structures corresponding to individual massive molecular clouds. (Leroy. A., Schinnerer. E., Hughes. A., et al, [2021])

“Our survey is the first one to capture the demographics of these stellar nurseries across a large number of the galaxies near the Milky Way,” adds Leroy, the lead author of a paper presenting the PHANGS ALMA survey. “We used these measurements to measure the characteristics of these nurseries, their lifetimes, and the ability of these objects to form new stars.”

How Galactic Neighborhoods Influence Star-Forming Clouds

The variety displayed by the molecular clouds surveyed in the PHANGS project was visible due to ALMA’s ability to take millimeter-wave images with the same sharpness and quality as images taken in the visible spectrum.

“While optical pictures show us light from stars, these ground-breaking new images show us the molecular clouds that form those stars,” says Leroy. “That helped us to see that stellar nurseries actually change from place to place.”

Left: Colour composite image of the spiral galaxy M 66 (or NGC 3627) obtained with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments (ESO) Right: emission measured by PHANGS–ALMA for NGC 2903 The high-resolution view shows clumpy structures corresponding to individual massive molecular clouds. (Leroy. A., Schinnerer. E., Hughes. A., et al, [2021])



The team compared the changes displayed by molecular clouds from galaxy to galaxy to changes in houses, neighbourhoods and cities from region to region here on Earth.

“How stellar nurseries relate to their parent galaxies has been a big question for a long time. We’re able to answer this because our survey expands the amount of data on stellar nurseries by a factor of almost 100,” says Leroy. “Before this, it was very common to study a few hundred nurseries in one galaxy. So it was kind of like trying to learn about houses in general by looking only at neighbourhoods in Columbus, Ohio.

“You will learn some things about houses, but you miss the big picture and a lot of the variation, complexity, and commonality With this survey we looked at houses in many cities across many countries.”

Adam Leroy, Ohio State University

Leroy continues by explaining that stellar nurseries ‘know’ about their neighbourhood, meaning that molecular clouds are different depending on what galaxy they live in or where in that galaxy they are located. “So the stellar nurseries that we see in the Milky Way won’t be the same as those in a different galaxy, and the stellar nurseries in the outer part of a galaxy–where we live–aren’t the same as those near the galaxy centre.”

The team found clouds in the dense central regions of galaxies tend to be more massive, denser, and more turbulent than those located on the outskirts of a galaxy. In addition to this, the census revealed the lifecycle of clouds also depends on their environment. Annie Hughes, an astronomer at L’Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP) explains that this means that both the rate at which a cloud forms stars and the processes that ultimately destroy clouds both seem to depend on where the cloud lives.

How Differences in Globular Clusters Influence the Birth of Stars

Because all stars are formed in molecular clouds, understanding the differences in these clouds of gas and dust and how they are caused by the conditions in which they exist is key to better understanding the processes that are driving the birth of stars like our own Sun.

These molecular clouds are so vast that they can birth anywhere from thousands to hundreds of thousands of stars before being exhausted of raw materials. These new observations have shown astronomers that each cosmic neighbourhood can have an effect on where stars are born and how many stars are spawned.

“Every star in the sky, in fact, every star in every galaxy, including our Sun, was born in one of these stellar nurseries. These are really the engines that build galaxies and make planets, and they’re just an essential part of the story of how we got here.”

Adam Leroy, Ohio State University
Preperations are underway for the launch of the JWST which Leroy says will likely contribute to the further investigation of stellar nurseries (JWST)

The next step for the astronomers will be to combine the data provided by ALMA with surveys conducted by other telescopes including the Hubble space telescope, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) also located in the Atacama desert, Chile. Leroy hopes that this along with observations made with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will help astronomers answer the question of how the diversity of molecular structures affects the stars which form within them. He explains: “By doing this we will combine what we are learning from ALMA about the clouds that form stars with pictures of newly formed stars from these other telescopes.

This promises to give us the best view ever of the full life cycle of these stellar nurseries, and our most complete picture ever of the full cycle of star birth and death.”

Adam Leroy, Ohio State University

Leroy concludes by pointing out why the study of these star-forming regions is so important. “This is the first time we have gotten a clear view of the population of these stellar nurseries across the whole nearby universe,” the researcher says. “It’s a big step towards understanding where we come from.”

Birthplace of giant planets: Monash astrophysicists discover a baby planet sculpting a disc of gas and dust. Credit: ESO/ALMA.

‘Baby’ planet two to three times the size of Jupiter discovered

It may be an infant, but that doesn’t mean it’s small. Researchers have discovered a new ‘baby’ planet, at least twice the size of Jupiter, carving a path through a stellar nursery. 

Astrophysicists from Monash University have used the ALMA telescope in Chile to discover a ‘baby’ planet inside a protoplanetary disc. But despite being a youngster, this infant is still between two to three times the mass of Jupiter — the most massive planet in our solar system. 

Birthplace of giant planets: Monash astrophysicists discover a baby planet sculpting a disc of gas and dust. Credit: ESO/ALMA.

The giant ‘baby’ was found inside in the middle of a gap in the gas and dust that forms the planet-forming disc around the young star HD97048. The study — published in Nature Astronomy — is the first to provide an origin of these gaps in protoplanetary discs — also known as ‘stellar nurseries’ because they act as the birthplaces for planets— which have thus far puzzled astronomers. 

“The origin of these gaps has been the subject of much debate,” says the study’s lead author, Dr Christophe Pinte, an ARC Future Fellow at the Monash School of Physics and Astronomy. “Now we have the first direct evidence that a baby planet is responsible for carving one of these gaps in the disc of dust and gas swirling around the young star.”

The team discovered the new planet by mapping the flow of gas around HD97048 — a young star not yet on the main sequence, which sits in the constellation Chamaeleon located over 600 light-years from Earth. 

Observing the flow in this material, the team hunted for areas in which the flow was disturbed, in a similar way to disturbance a submerged rock would cause in a stream flowing over it. They were able to ascertain the planet’s size by recreating this ‘bump’ or ‘kink’ in the flow using computer models. 

Using the same method of locating ‘bumps’ in gas flow around young stars, the team previously discovered a similar new ‘baby’ planet around another young star roughly a year ago. Those findings were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

That initial discovery — found in the stellar nursery around HD163296 360 light-years from Earth — was the first of its kind and provided a ‘missing link’ in scientists understanding of planet formation.

These two studies add to what is only a small collection of known ‘baby’ planets. 

“There is a lot of debate about whether baby planets are really responsible for causing these gaps,” says Associate Professor Daniel Price, the study’s co-author and Future Fellow at the school. “Our study establishes for the first time a firm link between baby planets and the gaps seen in discs around young stars.”


Original research: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0852-6

Celestial fireworks from dying stars

A new image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescop at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile shows giant loops of gas that resemble what you would see for New Year’s Eve; however, there probably isn’t much joy in that sector, as these loops are believed to be emitted by dying stars. What’s interesting is that new stars are also being born in the same area, so this makes it a stellar nursery, as well as a stellar cemetery.

NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57 which is close to the constellation of Carina. Stars born in that sector are typically much larger and heavier than the Sun, and these giants emit radiation at incredible rates, which is why we get to see this magnificent display of colour, but it’s also the reason why they have such short lived and explosive lives.

The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States, who participated in ESO’s Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition.