Tag Archives: SFN

Music can be used to estimate political ideology to an “accuracy of 70%”, researchers say

Do you like Pharrell’s “Happy”? Then you’re probably a conservative.

If you’ve ever tried to argue with a stranger on the Internet about politics (or with your family at Thanksgiving dinner), you’re well aware that it’s a recipe for disaster: political ideology is often so deeply rooted that it feels hard-wired into our DNA. Political ideology strongly influences our views on things like economics and social policies, but could it also have far-reaching influences on things we aren’t even aware of? The Fox Lab at New York University believes the answer is yes.

Their theory?

“Ideology fundamentally alters how we perceive a neutral stimulus, such as music,” said Caroline Myers, who presented her research at the 2018 Society for Neuroscience Meeting.

To examine the influence of political ideology on musical preference, participants self-reported their political ideology as liberal, conservative, or center, and then listened to clips from 192 songs. For each song clip, they would rate how familiar they were with the song and then how much they liked or disliked it. These songs included the top 2 songs each year from the Billboard Top 40, iconic songs across certain genres, and a selection of more obscure music. Participants additionally ranked how often they believed they listened to certain genres of music — which led to some surprising findings.

For example, 60% of individuals who identified as liberals said that they listen to R&B music, and yet they weren’t any more familiar with these songs than any other group — and they actually liked R&B songs less than their conservative counterparts. Liberals also stated they listen to jazz but were not any more familiar with jazz music than the other groups.

They also looked at individual song preference across the various ideologies. Some did not showcase any major differences, with classical music being the least divisive of all the musical genres. The most polarizing song, however, was “Happy” by Pharrell Williams. Conservatives love it, while liberals hate it. And there’s actually evidence of this in the real world — just two weeks ago, Pharrell issued President Donald Trump a cease and desist order for using the song at one of his rallies.

While we can use this information to create a kick-ass playlist for our like-minded friends, is there any evidence that we can guess an individual’s political ideology purely based on musical taste? Surprisingly, the answer is yes.

“We were able to estimate individual’s ideological leanings to an accuracy of 70%,” said Myers.

Myers is currently working on addressing the limitations of her study such as the limited number of conservative participants due to heavy on-campus recruiting for the study. However, the results are still striking, and quite concerning, from a personal data standpoint. It goes to show that, even if we’re not actively posting personal details on social media, companies may still have other means to gain insight into our personal preferences – and we might not even be aware of it.

Why do people self-harm? New study offers surprising answers

If you’ve seen HBO’s newest miniseries, Sharp Objects, you’re well familiar with what doctors call NSSI: non-suicidal self-injury. NSSI is a serious mental health condition, but despite years of research, we’re still not quite sure why individuals engage in this type of behavior. A new study performed at St. Edward’s University in Austin, Texas, sought the answer to this question by drawing on existing theories in the literature.


Previous studies have shown that individuals who exhibit NSSI have low levels of β-endorphin, which is produced to mediate stress-induced analgesia (the inability to feel pain) — and high ratings of clinical dissociation, which is a feeling of disconnection with oneself and one’s surroundings. The researchers hypothesized that NSSI individuals are attempting to restore these imbalances using self-harm. To test their hypothesis, researchers recruited participants from the university. Using saliva samples and surveys, they assessed β-endorphin levels and psychological state before and after a procedure called the cold-pressor test.

[panel style=”panel-info” title=”Cold-Pressor Test” footer=””]During the cold-pressor test, an individual immerses his or her hand in a bucket of ice water. Researchers then note how long it takes the individual to feel pain (their pain threshold) and how long until the pain is unbearable (pain tolerance), at which point the test ends.
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They discovered that non-suicidal self-injurers have lower levels of arousal than people without these tendencies (the control group). After the pain challenge, their arousal levels matched the baseline of the control group — in other words, experiencing pain was able to correct their low levels of arousal. The pain challenge also decreased symptoms of dissociation. However, these changes weren’t exclusive to the NSSI group: the control group also experienced an increase in arousal and a decrease in dissociative symptoms after the cold-pressor test.

Next, the researchers sorted the NSSI group by symptom severity. They found that the more severe the individual’s NSSI symptoms, the stronger their dissociative symptoms were. However, only the most severe cases experienced a reduction in these symptoms after the pain challenge. Another interesting finding is that the NSSI individuals with moderate symptom severity actually had higher levels of β-endorphins (both before and after the pain challenge). This wasn’t seen in those with low or high symptom severity.

However, perhaps the most surprising part of the study was the high percentage of NSSI participants. 

“The literature states that there’s a 5% prevalence of NSSI in the general population, and we found this in 17 out of 65 participants, which is way above what we would expect, even when taking into consideration that university students tend to have a higher NSSI rate than the general population,” said Haley Rhodes, who presented the research at the 2018 Society for Neuroscience Meeting.

Rhodes admits that a bigger sample size is necessary before we can draw full conclusions from the data, but it’s intriguing that there seems to be a minor psychological benefit to the pain — though it most definitely doesn’t warrant any self-harming practices.

Understanding the imbalances in individuals that partake in NSSI might help us find a way to provide for their psychological needs, and allow them to get the same benefits without needing to resort to self-injury.