Tag Archives: Resilience

Biodiversity is a linchpin of productive, resilient crops

Greater biodiversity supports greater agricultural output, a new study reports.

Image via Pixabay.

The study looks at data from roughly 1,500 agricultural fields across the world. From American corn crops to oilseed rape fields in southern Sweden, from coffee plantations in India to the mango groves of South Africa and cereal crops in the Alps, one factor always has a positive effect on the productivity and resilience of crops: biodiversity.

The more the merrier

“Our study shows that biodiversity is essential to ensure the provision of ecosystem services and to maintain a high and stable agricultural production,” explains Matteo Dainese, Ph.D., a biologist at Eurac Research and first author of the study.

“For example, a farmer can depend less on pesticides to get rid of harmful insects if natural biological controls are increased through higher agricultural biodiversity.”

The study focused on two ecosystem services (the natural processes that keep ecosystems running without the need for oversight or costs on our part): pollination services provided by wild insects, and biological pest control. In short, they looked at the natural processes that fertilize crops and those that keep ravenous insects at bay through predation.

Heterogeneous landscapes (those with greater biodiversity), the team reports, can support greater populations and varieties of wild pollinators and beneficial insects. This directly leads to greater biological control of pests and crop yields.

Monocultures, on the other hand, lead to simpler landscapes and adverse effects for crops: there are fewer pollinators, both in overall numbers and in the number of species. Monocultures, the team adds, are the cause of roughly one-third of the negative effects pollinators experience from landscape simplification. If human control of harmful insects is also present, the strain on pollinators is even higher (the team notes that the loss of ‘natural enemy richness’ can represent up to 50% of the total effect of landscape simplification on pollinators).

If you boil everything down, the findings basically say that greater farmland biodiversity leads to more productivity and greater crop resilience in the face of environmental stressors such as climate change. Given that we’re contending with a two-pronged issue — on the one hand, we’re disrupting natural patterns, which impairs agricultural productivity, while on the other we’re trying to produce more food to feed an ever-growing population — the team believes that fostering farmland productivity should be a key goal of the agricultural sector.

“Under future conditions with ongoing global change and more frequent extreme climate events, the value of farmland biodiversity ensuring resilience against environmental disturbances will become even more important,” underlines animal ecologist Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter from the Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology at the University of Würzburg, the initiator of the study within the EU project ‘Liberation’.

“Our study provides strong empirical support for the potential benefits of new pathways to sustainable agriculture that aim to reconcile the protection of biodiversity and the production of food for increasing human populations.”

The researchers recommend that we work to protect environments for which health depends on diverse biological communities, and try to diversify crops and landscapes as much as possible to foster biodiversity in areas that lack it.

The paper has been published in the journal Science Advances.

Gotham-splash.

Scientists turn to the troubled streets of Gotham to understand community resilience

A duo of researchers at the Colorado State University (CSU) have used the tools of mechanical engineering to studying community resilience. To prove that their method is sound, they turned to the most troubled town out there — Batman’s fictional Gotham City.

Gotham-splash.

Image credits Jason King.

Resilient communities have the capacity to withstand unforeseen disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, or social upheaval, and have the internal resources to recover after they’ve passed. Still, while there’s agreement on what the term means, a one-size-fits-all approach to delineate and measure this quality has proven elusive — from both an engineering and social science point of view.

A new paper penned by CSU associate professor of civil engineer Hussam Mahmoud and grad student Akshat Chulahwat offers a new approach on the issue. By integrating a community’s infrastructure, social, and economic features, the two have created a mathematical model that measures a community’s ability to withstand major shocks over time and space. The technique can be used for both natural and man-made disruptions, and the researchers hope it will help communities address their shortcomings to better prepare for hazards.

Metrics? We gotham all

Community resilience is typically viewed as an issue incorporating elements of engineering, economics, and social studies. It’s a hugely broad topic, and since every community has a different social context, their members have to decide which metrics matter most to them and focus on those. These metrics generally coalesce into a number of “lifelines” such as water, housing, power, health, transportation capability, and so on.

It’s not necessarily a bad way of doing things, but it doesn’t allow any meaningful standard by which to judge resilience between communities. It’s also a pretty subjective method of estimating what area needs improvement, and as such, results can be less than stellar.

The team wanted to find a way of bringing all these metrics together into a universal method of assessing resilience. Their approach relies on a mathematical tool engineers use to study stress and strain in structural elements like girders or walls — finite element analysis. The duo based their work on the assumption that a community’s response to a disaster is largely similar to the swing of a pendulum or the way a vibrating string responds to force.

“Our model can help us determine what happens to your community, both spatially and temporally, if it’s struck by a natural disaster, economic downturn or social disruption,” said Mahmoud.

The new method uses the same lifelines but simplifies resilience into three classes: social, economic, and infrastructure. To adapt these to the rigors of finite element analysis, they considered mass to represent social vulnerabilities, damping as funds available for recovery, and stiffness to represent infrastructure.

Gotham City Grid.

Gotham City laid out in a Finite Element Analysis grid. The grid shows recovery of different lifelines, and how they affect recovery of various parts of the city.
Image credits Hussam Mahmoud, Akshat Chulahwat / Colorado State University.

To check if their model works, the team picked Batman’s Gotham City as a test-bed. First, they divided the community into uptown, midtown, and downtown, and then they simulated various disasters — such as a jail riot at Arkham Asylum, which was located near uptown Gotham.

Among the team’s observations in this proof-of-concept run is that the factors are interdependent: if one suffers a change, the others follow suit. Another is that a fast recovery isn’t necessarily the best — bouncing back too quickly from a disaster can leave groups unstable and vulnerable in the face of new challenges.

Mahmoud says he was inspired to define resilience in part by studying the Arab Spring of 2011 in Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. The period saw widespread demonstrations that lasted several weeks, and its social and economic tolls would stay with communities for years — but their impact was difficult to measure, he adds. The authors hope their model will provide a framework for better understanding how disruptions, like the Arab Spring, affect communities long term.

The paper “Spatial and Temporal Quantification of Community Resilience: Gotham City under Attack” has been published in the journal Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.