Tag Archives: numbers

Man who can’t see numbers due to rare brain disorders provides new insights into awareness

We take awareness for granted, but just because something is right in front of us, that doesn’t mean that it is completely obvious to the brain. In fact, there are various neural processes that are involved in recognizing objects such as human faces or musical instruments. In a new study, researchers at Johns Hopkins University delved deeper into what underlies awareness in the brain after they studied the odd case of a patient with a rare brain disorder that prevents him from recognizing digits.

Credit: Johns Hopkins University.

The patient, known as “RFS” in the study, has a degenerative brain disease that causes extensive atrophy in the cortex and basal ganglia. The damage to the brain cells led to some bizarre manifestations. Besides memory loss and muscle spasms, the patient cannot see the digits 2 through 9.

It’s not like the patient sees a blank. Instead, anything that looks those digits appears like random scribbles resembling “spaghetti”.

The patients’ vision is otherwise normal. He can recognize letters and others symbols — it’s just digits that are causing problems.

“When he looks at a digit, his brain has to ‘see’ that it is a digit before he can not see it — it’s a real paradox,” said Michael McCloskey, senior author of the new study and a cognitive scientist at Johns Hopkins. “In this paper what we did was to try to investigate what processing went on outside his awareness.”

McCloskey and colleagues devised a series of experiments that probed RFS’ awareness to see where and when it started to fumble. Although the patient can recognize human faces, when a picture of a face was embedded inside a number, both objects couldn’t be identified.

During this trial, the patient’s brain activity was scanned using electroencephalography (EEG). The procedure showed that although the face couldn’t be recognized, its presence was indeed detected by the brain. In fact, the brain waves were identical to the ones you’d expect in response to seeing a face clearly.

“These results show that RFS’s brain is performing complex processing in the absence of awareness,” said David Rothlein, a former Johns Hopkins graduate student who is now at the VA Boston Healthcare System. “His brain detected the faces in the digits without his having any awareness of them.”

In a second trial, the researchers embedded words inside numbers. Similar to the previous experiment, the patient’s brain registered the words, but something was still missing that kept the patient from actually being able to read the words. In another experiment, RFS couldn’t see a picture of a violin drawn onto a large digit. However, if the picture was far enough away from the number, the patient could see it clearly.

“He was completely unaware that a word was there, yet his brain was not only detecting the presence of a word, but identifying which particular word it was, such as ‘tuba’,” said co-first author Teresa Schubert, a former Johns Hopkins graduate student who is now at Harvard University.

These striking experiments show that visual awareness may require additional neural processing. Although complex processes are involved in detecting and identifying faces, words, and other symbols, these aren’t sufficient to create awareness.

The findings appeared in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences.

complex numbers

Only time will tell – A complex number tribute

I was in high school when the notion of complex numbers was fed into my vocabulary. None of it made sense! One of my friends remarked “Why on earth did they have to invent a new Number System? Uhh.. Mathematicians!!”. And as distressing as it was, we weren’t able to comprehend why!

There are certain elegant aspects to complex numbers that are often overlooked but are pivotal to understanding them. Of the top of the chart – the events that led to the invention / discovery of complex numbers. To shed some light on these events is the crux of this post.

A date with history.

There were quotidian equations such as x² + 1 =0 which people wanted to solve, but it was well-known that the equation had no solutions in the realms of real numbers. Why, you ask?Well, quite intuitively the addition of a square real number (always positive) and one was never going to yield 0.

And also, as is evident from the graph, the curve does the intersect the x- axis for a solution to persist.

For the ancient Greeks, Mathematics was synonymous with Geometry. And there were a legion geometrical problems which had no solutions, peculiar quadratics like  x² + 1 =0 were branded the same way.

“ Why make up new numbers for the sole purposes for being solutions to Quadratic equations? “. This was the rationale that people stuck with.

The Real Challenge.

Quadratics, per se were easy to solve. A 16th century mathematician’s redemption was confronting a cubic equation. Unlike Quadratics, cubic equations pass through the x axis at least once, so the existence of a solution was guaranteed. To seek out for them was the challenge.

The general form of a cubic equation is as follows:

f (x) =  au³  + bu² + cu + d

If we divide throughout by “a”, it simplifies the equation and substituting x  = u – ( b / 3a )  gets rid of the squared term . Thus, we obtain:

x³ – 3px – 2q = 0

A mathematician named Cardano is attributed for coming up with the solution for the above equation as :

x = ³√( q + √ ( q²  – p³ ) )  +  ³√( q – √ ( q²  – p³ ) )

This equation is perfectly legit. But when p³ > q² it yields incomprehensible solutions.

 

Bombelli’s “Wild Thought”.

The strangeness of the formula enticed Bombelli. He considered the equation x³  = 15x + 4. By virtue of inspection, he found out that x = 4 satisfied the equation. But, plugging values into the cardano’s equation, he obtained:

x = ³√ ( 2 + 11 i ) + ³√ ( 2  – 11 i )    where i = √-1

Wait a minute! The equation is hinting that there exists no solution in the real numbers domain, but in contraire x = 4 is a solution!!

In a desperate attempt to resolve the paradox, he had what he called it as a ‘wild thought’. What if the equation could be broken down as

x = ( 2 + n i ) + ( 2 – n i )

This would yield x = 4 and resolve the conflict. It might sound magical, but when he tested out his abstraction, he was indeed right. From calculations, he obtained the value for n as 1. i.e 

 2 ± i =  ³√( 2  ± 11 i )

This was the birth of Complex Numbers. By treating a quantity such as 2 + 11√-1, without regard for its meaning in just the same way as a natural number, Bombelli unlike no one before him had come up with a modus operandi for dealing with such intricate equations, which were previously thought to have no solutions.

While complex numbers per se still remained mysterious, Bombelli’s work on Cubic equations thus established that perfectly real problems required complex arithmetic for their solutions.This empowered people to venture into frontiers which were formerly unexplored.

And for this triumph Bombelli is regarded as the Inventor of Complex Numbers.

Fun fact

A moon crater was named after Bombelli, honoring his accomplishments.

 

PC: NASA , Flickr

Sources : Mathematics and its history, Visual Complex Analysis.