Tag Archives: narcissism

What is a narcissist really?

Credit: Pixabay.

One might call out a person who posts an excessive amount of selfies on social media or talks way too much about themselves a narcissist, but a true narcissist — the kind diagnosed by a psychiatrist — is actually a bit more than that.

A narcissist is essentially a person who is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). The hallmarks of a clinical case of narcissism are selfishness at the expense of others, attention-seeking, and the lack of consideration for other people’s feelings. But behind this mask of extreme confidence lies a fragile self-esteem that’s vulnerable to the slightest criticism.

Going into more detail, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) — the handbook used by healthcare professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders — there are nine criteria for NPD.

These include:

  1. grandiose sense of self-importance
  2. preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
  3. belief they’re special and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people or institutions
  4. need for excessive admiration
  5. sense of entitlement
  6. interpersonally exploitative behavior
  7. lack of empathy
  8. envy of others or a belief that others are envious of them
  9. demonstration of arrogant and haughty behaviors or attitudes

Alternatively, the DSM-5 handbook suggests that NPD is characterized by moderate or greater impairment in personality functioning, manifested by characteristic difficulties in two or more of the following four areas:

  • Identity
  • Self-direction
  • Empathy
  • Intimacy

Am I a narcissist? The challenges of diagnosing NPD

Narcissistic personality disorder is highly variable and comes with a wide range of severity of pathology. Like many other mental health disorders, NPD is on a spectrum with some being more ‘narcissistic’ than others, and a diagnosis in real-life is not as easy as it might seem.

While the definition and criteria offered by the DSM-5 handbook capture important aspects of narcissistic pathology, some psychologists believe that these classifications fail to provide broader coverage of the individuals who receive the diagnosis in clinical practice.

In a 2015 review published in The American Journal of Psychiatry, psychologists wrote that the DSM-5 fails to address some cover psychological features of NPD, such as vulnerable self-esteem; feelings of inferiority, emptiness, and boredom; and affective reactivity and distress. In other words, narcissism isn’t all about an inflated sense of self, it can also describe a deflated sense of self.

“Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder may be grandiose or self-loathing, extraverted or socially isolated, captains of industry or unable to maintain steady employment, model citizens or prone to antisocial activities,” wrote the authors of the study.

But what seems to characterize individuals with NPD across the board is a brittle sense of self that is somewhat removed from reality, rather than flexible and reality-based. This fragile sense of self is predicated on maintaining a view of oneself as exceptional.

The NPD individual is excessively reliant on external feedback and validation to support not only positive self-regard but also self-definition. This means that the NPD individual may display a dual strategy in his relationship with others. On the one hand, they have a profound need for others to support their sense of self, but mainly on a superficial level. On the other hand, engaging with other people on an authentic level may confront the NPD individual with the painful reality that others have attributes that they lack.

Subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder

In fact, some clinicians believe that the textbook narcissist, which is typically characterized by overt grandiosity, attention-seeking, entitlement, arrogance, and little observable anxiety, is merely a subtype of NPD — the thick-skinned, overt subtype.

For instance, another subtype is the vulnerable NPD, where grandiosity is cloaked in feelings of inferiority and deficiency. 

The two subtypes can be differentiated by the fact that those with more grandiose features tend to engage in superficial relationships organized to support self-esteem and self-definition, whereas those in the vulnerable subtype tend to withdraw from social situations in order to avoid the painful reality that others have attributes that they lack.

Besides the grandiose and vulnerable subtypes, there is a healthier group of individuals with narcissistic personality disorder, described as “high-functioning,” “exhibitionistic,” or “autonomous.” These are the kind of people who use some of the characteristics of NPD as adaptive rather than maladaptive traits in order to succeed in life. Thanks to their high level of functioning, at first glance individuals who fall under this subtype of NPD, may not appear as they suffer from a personality disorder, so their diagnosis may be overlooked.

Finally, there’s “malignant narcissism”. Patients with this subtype of NPD display prominent antisocial behavior, tend toward paranoid features, and take pleasure in their aggression and sadism toward others.

All subtypes share the tendency for self-regulatory needs that leave little room for genuine interest in the needs or feelings of others.

How many narcissists are there?

The prevalence of NPD is poorly understood, but many experts believe that it is one of the most common personality disorders. Estimates range from 1% to 5.3% in the general population.

Narcissism is rarely alone, though. NPD is frequently associated with other comorbidities, in particular with substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, and other personality disorders. In fact, NPD comorbidities are the main reason why individuals with narcissistic personality disorder even come to clinical attention.

Narcissistic personality disorder most commonly co-occurs with antisocial, histrionic, borderline, schizotypal, and passive-aggressive personality disorders.

What causes narcissism?

Scientists don’t know what causes NPD, but as is the case with other personality disorders, the causes are likely complex. NPD has been linked to:

  • Environment ― psychologists have identified a relationship between excessive adoration or excessive criticism in childhood by a parent and the propensity to develop NPD later in life.
  • Genetics ― inherited characteristics
  • Neurobiology — the connection between the brain and behavior and thinking

NPD tends to affect more males than females. The first signs of NPD often begin in the teens or early adulthood.

Treatment for narcissistic personality disorder

Individuals with NPD generally believe that there isn’t anything wrong with them, so it is very unlikely they will seek treatment. However, they may be inclined to call for help due to symptoms of depression, drug or alcohol use, or another mental health problem caused by the comorbidities that often accompany NPD.

Due to the grandiosity and defensiveness that characterize narcissistic personality disorder, individuals with NPD will tend to be against acknowledging problems and vulnerabilities and make engagement in any form of psychotherapy difficult.

So far, the efficacy of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment approaches for narcissistic personality disorder has never been systematically or empirically investigated — to the best of our knowledge.

However, there are empirically supported treatments for borderline personality disorder that have adaptations for narcissistic personality disorder. These include mentalization-based therapy, transference-focused psychotherapy, and schema-focused psychotherapy.

NPD can’t be ‘cured’, but psychotherapy can help an individual to:

  • manage their emotions more effectively
  • learn to take responsibility for their actions
  • learn to build healthier relationships with others
  • build up their self-esteem
  • adjust their expectations of themselves and others
  • understand the impact of their behavior on others

Job interviews reward narcissists, punish applicants from modest cultures

How do you act when you’re at a job interview? Do you just go and be yourself, showing your true qualities and defects, or is it all a role in which you say what the interviewer wants to hear? According to a new research, sadly, the latter may be the way to go more often than not. A University of British Columbia study finds that narcissistic applicants are more successful in job interviews than others which are similarly qualified, but act more modestly.

Image via: The Art of Charm.

The study was conducted solely on job interviews from North America, and it shows that applicants from different cultures, especially some Asian cultures, might find it more difficult to land a job in the US or Canada.

“A job interview is one of the few social situations where narcissistic behaviours such as boasting actually create a positive impression,” says UBC Psychology Prof. Del Paulhus, the lead author of the study. “Normally, people are put off by such behaviour, especially over repeated exposure.”

They placed participants in interview situations, and measured their narcissism levels before going into the interview. People with higher narcissism levels tended to talk more, make more eye contact, ask the interviewer more questions, and overall, were more successful in the interviews.

Meanwhile, participants of Japanese, Chinese and Korean heritage exhibited lower levels of narcissism, and were less likely to receive “definitely hire” ratings as a result.

Aside from showing this rather unwelcome disparity between applicants coming from different cultures, this study gives important tips to candidates, as well as interviewers.

“Candidates should engage with the interviewer while continuing to self-promote,” he says. “Interviewers should look beyond cultural style and assess individual qualifications. Instead of superficial charm, interviewers must analyze candidates’ potential long-term fit in the organization.”

What do you think? Is this normal, should interviewers favor those who tend to be more directly engaged, or is this an unhealthy practice, and has to stop?

Paulhus, D. L., Westlake, B. G., Calvez, S. S. and Harms, P. D. (2013), “Self-presentation style in job interviews: the role of personality and culture.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43: 2042–2059. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12157

Echo and Narcissus (1903), a Pre-Raphaelite interpretation by John William Waterhouse

Grandiose narcissist U.S. Presidents make for more effective leaders, study shows

Echo and Narcissus (1903), a Pre-Raphaelite interpretation by John William Waterhouse

Echo and Narcissus (1903), a Pre-Raphaelite interpretation by John William Waterhouse. Wikimedia Commons

In Greek mythology, Narcissus fell in love with himself after gazing upon the splendor of his own reflection. A pathological admirer of his beauty, Narcissus eventually died of grief for not being able to reach the beautiful young man in the water. When thinking of Narcissus, whose story birthed the term narcissism to describe inordinate fascination with oneself or vanity, it’s hard to equate him with powerful leadership skills. Despite this, a new study found that grandiose narcissism in U.S. presidents is associated with ratings by historians of the overall greatness of presidencies.

There are two times of narcissism according to psychology: there’s vulnerable narcissism where the individual is marked by excessive self-absorption, introversion, and over-sensitivity; and there’s grandiose narcissism which characterizes extroverted, self-aggrandizing, domineering, and flamboyant personalities. Quite a few U.S. presidents share this latter personality trait and apparently it had something to do with how well they ran the country, according to Emory University psychologists.

“Most people think of narcissism as predominantly maladaptive,” says Ashley Watts, a graduate student of psychology at Emory “but our data support the theory that there are bright and dark sides to grandiose narcissism.”

For their study, the psychologists analyzed 42 presidents, up to and including George W. Bush, using data garnered from the insights of 100 experts, including biographers, journalists, and scholars who have established authority on one or more U.S. presidents. This data was then used to establish standardized psychological measures of personality, intelligence, and behavior. Presidency term performance in history was scored using data from the C-SPAN (2009) and Siena College (2010) surveys.

Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s the fairest politician of them all?

Their results show that presidents overall exhibit an elevated level of grandiose narcissism compared to the general population and that in recent times the U.S. has had ever more grandiose narcissist presidents. This may be attributed to the rising importance of media charisma associated with higher popularity in election poles that favors candidates that are more attention-seeking and outgoing.

Former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson scored the highest on the grandiose narcissism scale.

Former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson scored the highest on the grandiose narcissism scale.

Current U.S. President Barrack Obama wasn’t included in the study, however, considering during his inaugural speech President Obama referred to himself 144 times and wrote two autobiographies before the age of 45, with not that much to show for prior to publishing, chances are that he too may be eligible for inclusion in this fine roster.

However, while the study suggests that a lot of U.S. presidents were rather shallow, this didn’t affect their leadership capabilities quite on the contrary. Former President Lyndon B. Johnson scored the highest of all former presidents, and although he failed to withdraw the nation from the Vietnam war, he did in fact run an ambitious slate of progressive reforms aimed at alleviating poverty and creating what he called a “Great Society” for all Americans. an ambitious slate of progressive reforms aimed at alleviating poverty and creating what he called a “Great Society” for all Americans.

“It’s interesting to me that these are memorable presidents, ones that we tend to talk about and learn about in history classes,” Watts says. “Only rarely, however, do we talk about most of those who had low ratings for grandiose narcissism, like Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore.”

Lyndon Johnson’s mixed presidential legacy reflects both positive and negative outcomes tied to grandiose narcissism,  Scott Lilienfeld, Emory professor of psychology says. “Johnson was assertive, and good at managing crises and at getting legislation passed. He also had a reputation for being a bit of a bully and antagonistic.”

Johnson is followed by the grandiose narcissism presidential ranking by Theodore Roosevelt, Andrew Jackson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy.

“In U.S. history, there is an enormous variety in presidential leadership style and success,” Lilienfeld says. “One of the greatest mysteries in politics is what qualities make a great leader and which ones make a disastrous, failed leader. Grandiose narcissism may be one important part of the puzzle.”

Previously, the same team determined that fearless dominance associated with psychopathy is an important personality trait that may predict who gets elected for the presidency. Add narcissism to the equation and, well, this can only make you think.

The study was reported in the journal Psychological Science.