Tag Archives: drink

Sweet tooth: two-thirds of drinks sold to children are sweetened

An average half-liter bottle of soda contains the equivalent of 14 sugar cubes. While there is some variance between different sodas, virtually all sweetened drinks contain a high amount of sugar, and they rarely have any useful nutrients.

Sugary drinks are an important part of why childhood obesity has spiked in recent years, rising by over 1000% in the past 40 years. Researchers assessed the top-selling brands of children’s drinks to see just how healthy or unhealthy they are. A total of 34 sweetened drinks (fruit drinks, flavored waters, and rink mixers) and 33 unsweetened drinks (fruit juice, juice-water blends, and one sparkling water) were analyzed.

They found that 62% of the global sales of children’s drinks (a market worth $2.2 billion / year) comes in the form of sweetened, unhealthy drinks. In contrast, healthier drinks represented just 38% of all sales.

Children were also exposed to more ads for sweetened drinks. Image credits: Rudd Center

Furthermore, researchers report that companies spent $20.7 million to advertise children’s drinks with added sugars in 2018, primarily to kids under age 12 — contradicting the rhetoric used by many companies.

“Beverage companies have said they want to be part of the solution to childhood obesity, but they continue to market sugar-sweetened children’s drinks directly to young children on TV and through packages designed to get their attention in the store,” said Jennifer L. Harris, lead study author and the Rudd Center’s director of Marketing Initiatives. “Parents may be surprised to know that pediatricians, dentists, and other nutrition experts recommend against serving any of these drinks to children.

More and more companies are developing drinks that are allegedly healthier (particularly natural juices and juice-water blends that don’t contain sweeteners) — but these are still a minority, and recent research has shown that natural juices might not be a healthy option after all.

The biggest problem, however, is that parents are often duped by vague, misleading nutritional claims, as well as images of fruits on the packages of sugary drinks. Few parents bother to look carefully at the nutritional label, and they shouldn’t have to, researchers say. Instead, rules should be enforced so that labeling and packaging are accurate and clear, depicting which drinks contain sugar and which don’t.

“You shouldn’t have to be a nutritionist to figure out whether or not a product is healthy for your child,” said Maria Romo-Palafox, study author and assistant professor of Nutrition and Dietetics at Saint Louis University.

“The fronts of the packages make children’s drinks look healthy, but there’s no way to know which ones have added sugars or low-calorie sweeteners reading the front. You have to read the nutrition facts panel on the back and you have to know the names of low-calorie sweeteners, such as acesulfame potassium and sucralose, to realize they are in the product,” she added.

The report, sponsored by the health charity Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, has not been peer-reviewed.

New study maps what the world is drinking

Whether it’s coffee, milk, or sugary drinks, we all have our preferred drinks. Liquids make up a substantial percentage of the calories we ingest on a daily basis, and yet global information about their consumption remains limited. Researchers wanted to draw a global baseline and see what different demographics in different countries are consuming.

“These preliminary data derived from the Global Dietary Database project can help inform nutrition transitions over time, the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeted dietary policy to improve diet and health,” said lead study author Laura Lara-Castor, a doctoral student in the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. Lara-Castor will present the research at Nutrition 2019, the American Society for Nutrition annual meeting, held June 8-11, 2019 in Baltimore.

Some results were pretty intuitive. For instance, consumption of milk was highest in northern Europe — high-income areas in which dairy has traditionally played an important role in the diet, and where a large percentage of the population isn’t lactose intolerant. Juice consumption was highest in Latin America, especially in Colombia (where adults drink an average of 1.4 cups per day) and the Dominican Republic (1.3 cups per day).

Other things, however, left more room for discussion.

Researchers were particularly interested in a particular set of drinks, one which is increasingly being considered a health hazard: sweetened drinks. Intriguingly, Latin America also had the highest consumption of this sort of beverage, with the average Mexican adult drinking 2.5 cups per day, followed by Suriname and Jamaica at 1.8 cups per day. The lowest intake was in China, Indonesia, and Burkina Faso.

“Notably, sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake was highest in the Latin American region, where both commercial and homemade sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit drinks are widely consumed,” said Lara-Castor.

Mexico is no stranger to its sugary problem. The country has extremely high rates of obesity (more than 70% of the population is overweight or obese), and much of that is owed to sugar. Over 70% of the added sugar in diet comes from sugary drinks, with Coca-Cola being particularly popular. Mexico has taken steps to curb its addiction to sugary drinks, adding a tax on sugar. The tax seems to work, causing a 5.5% drop in the first year after it was introduced, followed by a 9.7% decline in the second year. Other parts of the world are also attempting to tackle this issue, with several cities and countries implementing taxes on sugar to remarkable results.

Establishing this global baseline is important to see how beverage consumption develops over the years, particularly when it comes to something like sugary drinks, where policy can make an important difference affecting our health. This information can help policymakers and, of course, us consumers to make better decisions in our day to day life.

 

Cold, dark climates linked to heavy drinking

Because nothing says “Let’s have a few drinks” like a dreary afternoon.

The new study analyzed data from 193 countries, finding that colder, darker climates are correlated with higher alcohol consumption and liver diseases. Senior author Ramon Bataller, associate director of the Pittsburgh Liver Research Centre, said:

“This is the first study that systematically demonstrates that worldwide and in America, in colder areas and areas with less sun, you have more drinking and more alcoholic cirrhosis.”

This seems to make a lot of sense if you think about it. At a physical level, alcohol is a vasodilator — it dilates your blood vessels, which increases the flow of warm blood to the skin. This means that consuming alcohol will make you feel warmer (although technically, your body is losing heat as it flows towards your skin, where it is easily lost), which could explain why people are more inclined to drink during cold spells. On a social level, people are also more likely to stay indoors when it’s cold and dark outside, which can also lead to drinking — particularly around Christmas and New Year’s Eve.

There’s also a connection between alcohol and depression, as well as a link between depression and a lack of sunlight — putting two and two together, it seems plausible that alcohol and darkness go hand in hand.

However, not everyone is convinced, and despite this solid study, the evidence seems a bit contradictory with previous studies. Prof. Jurgen Rehm from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health says that according to his work, there’s no link between temperature, light, and alcohol consumption. Instead, he says, countries such as Ireland, the UK, Germany and Poland have the highest alcohol consumption, whereas northern (Norway, Sweden, Finland) and southern countries (Malta, Greece, Italy) have the lowest reported consumption. He also added that this pattern of alcohol consumption is not restricted to Europe — anywhere you look, globally, the coldest and the hottest climates have the lowest alcohol consumption rates, which suggests that some other factor is at play.

However, Rehm also emphasizes the need to adopt healthy policies that reduce alcohol consumption. Earlier this year, Scotland implemented legislation that mandates minimum alcohol pricing — a move which was widely praised by health organizations and scientists.

Despite what some producers would have you believe, and what a few isolated studies have found, alcohol is, almost always, quite bad for you. Even moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a swarm of health risks.

Gin makes you sad, spirits make you sexy: Different alcohols have different effects on your mood, study finds

A group of researchers from the UK (where else?) set out to see how different types of alcohol affect your mood. To their surprise, they found that there might be some truth to the urban myths around alcohol.

Image credits: David Straight.

It’s the biggest study to ever document how people react to alcohol, mood-wise. Researchers used data from almost 30,000 people who responded to the Global Drug Survey, a yearly international poll about drug and alcohol habits around the world. They found significant differences between different types of drinks.

Strong spirits (like vodka, gin, or whiskey) made people feel energized (58% of people), confident (59%) and sexy (42%). But they also had a negative effect, tending to bring out aggression in some people. Negative feelings such as aggression (30%), restlessness (28%) and tearfulness (22%) give significant cause for concern. Meanwhile, just 2.5% of red wine drinkers reported feeling more aggressive.

Red wine tended to make people sad in 17% of cases, but more significantly, 53% of red wine drinkers said it left them feeling more relaxed. A similar fraction of people (almost 50%) reported this sentiment for beer. As it turns out, having a beer or a glass of wine does tend to make you feel more relaxed.

It’s not clear exactly why these things happen. It may be due to the nature of the drink, such as different ingredients, alcohol content, and the amounts consumed. However, it may be due to cultural aspects as well. Basically, the setting in which people tend to drink red wine might be more relaxing, whereas the setting for spirits might be more active. Authors conclude:

“Feeling positive emotions may in part be related to the promotion of positive experiences by advertising and the media. Emotions experienced could also be related to when the alcohol is drunk, the levels of alcohol within each beverage type and the different compounds found in different drinks.”

“Understanding emotions associated with alcohol consumption is imperative to addressing alcohol misuse, providing insight into what emotions influence drink choice between different groups in the population.”

Professor Mark Bellis, Public Health Wales’ director of policy, research and international development, says we should pay extra attention to spirits, which are associated with a rich history of violence.

“Spirits are often consumed more quickly and have much higher concentrations of alcohol in them. This can result in a quicker stimulating effect as blood alcohol levels increase. They may also be consumed in different social occasions so people may be drinking them deliberately to feel the drunken effect quickly while other types of drink are more likely to be consumed slowly or with food. As people get the kick from escalating alcohol levels, the same increases reduce the brain’s ability to suppress impulsive feelings or to consider the consequences of acting on them.”

The study was published in the British Medical Journal.

How to make vodka, with science!

Chemistry gets an undeserved bad reputation and it all starts in school — “mix an acid with a base and you get water and salts” is useful, sure, but not really catchy. People just aren’t that big on either water or salts. So can we nudge them to change their view of what is an undeniably awesome field of science? Is there a way to make chemistry a part of their life that they hold dear?

I say yes. The answer is one of its most useful known abilities — that of turning boring old food into booze. And we’re here to tell you how to make vodka — so you can get hammered, all in the comfort of your home. With science!

Brewing it up

While there are as many different processes as there are drinks, making any type of alcohol boils down to fermenting sugars. Vodka is awesome because it, along with moonshine, is probably the simplest spirit to make. The process discards all of those fancy steps such as aging; it can be made with virtually anything that ferments, and packs quite a punch. It also looks cool under a microscope. What else do you need? Let’s get down to it.

Image via vimeo

What you’ll need

[panel style=”panel-success” title=”The short version” footer=””]Foodstuffs to ferment, yeast, some containers and a still.[/panel]

Something to ferment — called the “mash.” This can be anything that contains sugar or starch. Potatoes, grain, or fruit all work; one distillery even figured out how to use wine. Depending on what you make your mash from (i.e. the starch and sugar content of the mash), you might have to add either enzymes (to break down starches into sugars) or sugar to the mix. Malted grains don’t require any added enzymes (as they’re already synthesized by the plant) and you can mix them into any mash as a source of enzymes.

Malted grain.
Image credits Wikimedia user Pierre-alain dorange.

Yeast — these are single-cell fungi that will be doing the heavy lifting. They will turn the sugars from the starting mixture into alcohol.

You can buy yeast in almost any grocery store, or brewer’s yeast in homebrew shops and online.
Image via flickr user terren in Virginia.

Containers, an airlock, water, a still, and some bottles — you’ll need either a big pot or several smaller ones in which to mix the mash with water and heat it, and a fermenting container to hold the resulting mixture. The airlock is a mechanism that allows fermentation gases to escape the container but doesn’t allow fresh air (and oxygen) to enter. You can buy one or make it yourself but it has to be solid enough to resist the pressure generated during fermentation. After fermentation, you’ll need to distill the liquid, and that’s where the still comes in.

Traditional Ukrainian vodka still.
Image credits Wikimedia user Arne Hückelheim.

M.A.S.H.

[panel style=”panel-success” title=”The short version” footer=””]To make alcohol you need sugar. Starchy foods need to be boiled and require enzymes to break down starch chains. Don’t boil the enzymes or the yeast.[/panel]

The first step is preparing the mash. You can either start with molasses (or just sugar), fruit, or fruit juice. The latter ones are pricier but don’t require any preparing. Grain and potatoes are the cheapest option, but you’ll need to cook their starches into sugars. Starch is made up of polysaccharides, and while dogs have adapted to digesting it yeast has not — it needs monosaccharides to ferment.

 Beer mash being mixed in a brewery vat. Image via flickr user epicbeer.

Beer mash being mixed in a brewery vat.
Image credits Flickr user epicbeer.

For a grain mash (wheat, barley, maize, or a combination of them) take a metal pot with a lid, fill it with water, and heat it up to around 165° F (74° C). As a rule of thumb, for a 10 gallons (38 l) pot you should use around 6 gallons (23 l) of water and 2 gallons of dry, flaked grain (7,6 l), then stir.

Too much heat will destroy the enzymes, so let the mix cool to between 155° F (68° C) and 150° F (66° C) then mix in one gallon of crushed grain malt. At this thermal point, the starches pass from the grains to the liquid which will become viscous or gelatinize. Let it rest for two hours, stirring occasionally. During this time the starch breaks down into sugars — as starch is basically made of long chains of simple sugars fused together, you should see the mash become less and less viscous as this happens. Before fermenting, let the mixture cool to 80° – 85° F (27° – 29° C), but don’t let the temperature drop too much below 80°F as this can spoil the mash.

Potatoes aren’t readily usable for making alcohol because they mostly store starch, not sugars. The plant’s roots also don’t produce the enzymes required to break starch down into sugars. So, for a potato mash, you’ll need to heat-treat the spuds before fermentation. Clean the tubers (you don’t need to peel them) and boil them for about one hour, until the mixture gelatinizes. Throw away the water, mash the potatoes, mix them with fresh tap water, and boil them again. For 10 pounds of potatoes, around 3 gallons of water will do. From here on, the process is exactly like the one above: Let the mixture cool to between 155° F (68° C) and 150° F (66° C), add either two pounds of crushed malted grains or store-bought enzymes, stir periodically over two hours, and let it cool overnight, keeping it at around 80° – 85° F (27° – 29° C).

You can even make a mixed mash (which is used in most brands of commercially-available vodka,) as long as you take care to heat-treat the mixture accordingly. Vodka doesn’t carry much flavor from the mash to the final brew, so you can choose any base for your drink and it won’t affect the taste that much.

Fermentation

[panel style=”panel-success” title=”The short version” footer=””]Strain the mash and place it in a fermentation container, which you need to keep at 80° – 85° F (27° – 29° C). Don’t seal the vessel, it could explode.[/panel]

This is the part where alcohol actually gets produced. Through fermentation, the yeast will eat up all the sugar in the mixture, breaking it down for energy and churning out CO2 and alcohols.

It’s recommended that you sterilize the container before fermentation so that there’s only your yeast left to metabolize the mix. You can use unsterilized containers, but the process will be messier — resulting in unwanted flavors and alcohols being produced by the action of other yeast stains and bacteria. You can buy sterilizing compounds in homebrew stores or online. You can also do a decent job sterilizing equipment by placing it in boiling water.

Strain your mash with a fine mesh strainer and pour the liquid part into the vessel. Try to splash it around while you do this so that it aerates — the yeast initially needs some oxygen to grow before producing alcohol. Hydrate the yeast with the appropriate amount of water and mix it into the vessel (use a sanitized spoon). Higher quality yeasts (called distiller’s’ yeast) will ferment more cleanly and produce a relatively low amount of unwanted alcohols.

Ok, so you’ve got your fermentation container all set up, time to seal it. You can use store-bought stoppers or make your own — lids or drilled rubber stoppers all work. Just be careful not to completely seal the vessel as the yeast will generate a lot of CO2, building up pressure in the container — it might even explode. So fix an airlock to lids or stoppers.

Bubbly, foamy, boozy explosion. Image via flickr user James Cridland.

Or things might bubble out of hand.
Image credits Flickr user James Cridland.

Keep the liquid at around 80° – 85° F (27° – 29° C) during fermentation for the best results. If you’re gonna use an airlock, you should see it bubbling during active fermentation, which will reduce or even cease as the sugars in the mix get broken down to alcohol.

Distillation

[panel style=”panel-success” title=”The short version” footer=””]Place the fermented liquid in the still, and heat to 173° F (78.3° C), but keep it under 212° F (100° C). Throw away the heads and tails of your vodka, as they contain harmful substances. Drink the body.[/panel]

After fermentation, the liquid (called the “wash”) basically fills all the criteria for booze — but it’s not really palatable, or safe to drink. Siphon it out of the fermentation vessel into a clean, sterilized container. Leave the yeast residue behind, or it will scorch and clog up your still. You can filter the wash before distillation if you want.

A still is a device that can separate liquids with different boiling temperatures. The basic idea is to heat the mixture above the boiling point of alcohol while keeping it under the boiling point of water. Some water will still evaporate, but as the vapors condense a large part of it trickles back into the boiling chamber, and a higher-alcohol content liquid is produced.

A (very fancy) swan-necked pot still.
Image credits Wikimedia user Bitterherbs1.

There are two types of stills you can use: pot and column stills. Both work using the principle above, but column stills are more efficient (also more complex and expensive). The main difference between the two is that column stills have a longer condensation/distillation chamber directly above the boiling vessel, so a larger part of unwanted vapors trickle back down and not in the final brew. Pot stills, however, are easier to build (they’re basically pressure cookers with tubing attached to them) and need less cooling as the distillation chamber can be completely submerged in water.

Fun fact: column stills are very similar to the installations oil refineries use in cracking or fractional distillation — the process by which petrol, diesel, lamp oil, and other finished products are created from crude oil. In fact, the same principles that go into distilling vodka are used to make these products.

The Coffey still, a (very tall and fancy) still for making high-proof spirits.
Image via Wikimedia user HighKing.

So you bartered, begged, or bought your way to a still. You have your wash all washy and ready. Here’s what you have to do:

Heat the wash to 173° F (78.3° C), but keep it under 212° F (100° C) or the water will also start to boil. Liquid will start to steadily drip from the still throughout distillation, but you don’t want all of it. Throw away the “heads,” the first resulting brew, as this is very rich in harmful volatile chemicals such as methanol. For 5 gallons (19 l) of wash, the heads are the first 2 ounces (30 ml) of brew (throw away a bit more just to be on the safe side).

Next comes the “body” which is the distillate that contains ethanol (the nice kind of alcohol), water, and other compounds. If using flowing water to cool the still, you can adjust the flow to control the speed and quality of distillation. Aim to get around two or three teaspoons every minute from the still for the best quality results. You can make it faster but you’ll get more impurities in your drink. This is, in fact, vodka. Bottle it up!

Over time the temperature in the boiling chamber will slowly rise towards 212° F (100° C) no matter what you do. The body of the brew will be distilled by now, and the process will result in the “tails,” which are again harmful and should be discarded.

Enjoy

Congratulations! You now know how to make your own vodka, and are a bit of a fledgling chemist. You can add your own little touches to the process — toy a little with the composition of your mush, filter your vodka using carbon filters, or even distil it again to get a stronger brew. Explore, experiment, innovate.

And at the end of the day, you get to enjoy a nice shot of vodka.

Or a bowl-full.
Image via Wikimedia.

Drinking guidelines are irrelevant for casual drinkers, scientists claim

A study conducted by researchers from the University of Sheffield found that people ignore drinking guidelines, especially as most of them rarely drink during the week but drink heavily during the weekend or on holiday.

Historically, science has shied away from studying how we drink alcohol; from what I found, this is actually the first peer reviewed study that documents how people react to drinking guidelines. Researchers from the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, which includes the University of Sheffield’s School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) and the Institute for Social Marketing at the University of Stirling created focus groups with people from varied socio-economic groups aged 19-65. They found that regardless of background and age, daily intake suggestions are deemed irrelevant because people rarely drink daily – they have periods of not drinking, and then a night or two of going out, partying and drinking.

Melanie Lovatt from the University of Sheffield, who led the study said:

“These findings not only help to explain why some drinkers disregard current guidelines, but also show that people make decisions about their drinking by considering their responsibilities and lifestyle, rather than just their health.”

The study was conducted in the UK, so its results are specific for that country – but drinking guidelines are pretty similar throughout the world. Usually, it’s 3-5 units of alcohol per day for men (1-2 beers) and 2-4 for women (a standard glass of wine). Sure, that’s reasonable advice, but if people aren’t following it and don’t really care about it, then we should go about changing something, right?

Professor Linda Bauld from the University of Stirling said:

“This research was conducted in both Scotland and England illustrating that the findings have relevance for different parts of the country. Both policy makers and health professionals may find the results useful in considering how people interpret current guidelines and any place these guidelines may have in providing information to advise people about alcohol consumption.”

The study also found that most participants do regulate their drinking, but they use their own measures for that – either work next day, or taking care of the kids, or avoiding a hangover. Also, the idea of an “alcohol unit” is strange for most people, who judge alcohol by bottles, pints or shots. Also, there’s another problem which isn’t taken into consideration with these guidelines – many people actually drink to get drunk, so they wilfully ignore them.

By this point, I think it’s safe to say that alcohol guidelines have failed. People don’t understand them, they don’t care about them, and sometimes they purposely break them. Finding an alternative seems the only rational thing to do.

The findings are published today (5 August 2015) in the journal Addiction.

Scientists identify 4 types of drunks – which one are you?

Are you a Hemingway, a Nutty Professor, or a Poppins?? No, that’s not the latest Facebook game (although it’d be really fun to see one implemented), but it’s a classification introduced by researchers at the University of Missouri. Basically, depending on how your personality changes when you start drinking, they’ve defined 4 types: the Hemingways, the Mary Poppins, the Nutty Professors, and the Dr. Hydes.

file3581276848872

“Some individuals ‘‘change’’ more dramatically than others when intoxicated, and the nature and magnitude of these changes can result in harmful outcomes,” they write in the initial part of the abstract. “The primary purpose of this study was to assess the degree to
which levels of sober and drunk personality traits can be grouped into meaningful clusters,” they then add.

Of course, for the study, they used undergrads – 374 undergrads that enjoy their fair share of pints every now and then. They conducted the study because despite all the Buzzfeed-like article that you might read about the “types of drinkers”, there isn’t a single peer-reviewed study on that issue – or at least they couldn’t find it.

So, as it turns out, here are the four clusters they found:

  • The Ernest Hemingway drinker. Ernest Hemingway liked to brag that he could go on drinking for days and still not get drunk – in other words, his personality didn’t change significantly when he wasn’t sober. I’m absolutely thrilled they named this category after him, as Hemingway was a truly spectacular individual (read this article to see just how incredibly awesome a person he was). This was the largest group, with 40% of participants included here.
  • The Mary Poppins drinker. About 14% of participants were included here, and I’d dare say yours truly can also fit. Basically, the Mary Poppins drinker becomes much more friendly and sweet when he’s drunk, talking to more people and engaging more with those around.
  • But on the contrary, the Mr Hyde drinkers reported a tendency of being particularly less responsible, less intellectual, and more hostile when under the influence of alcohol. This was the ‘only cluster that was statistically more likely to experience alcohol consequences, suggesting that individuals in this group not only embody less savoury personality characteristics when drunk, but also incur acute harm from their drinking,’ researchers say.
  • The last one, the Nutty Professor drinker was generally introverted when sober, but became much more extroverted when drunk.  They also tended to report having the most overall discrepancy between their reported sober and drunk traits. But despite the fact that they changed significantly upon alcohol consumption, there was no increased risk of harm associated.

This is still an initial study, on a very particular type of people (undergrads), possibly not representative of the entire population, and over a relatively small number of participants, but it does raise some interesting prospects. Alcohol can be used successfully as a “social lubricant”, and it’s not always associated with increased social risk, but it can also turn people into Mr Hyde – it all depends on your personality. So… which one are you?

You can read the entire study here, for free.

Captain obvious presents his 5 favorite studies from 2009

captain-obvious-5-nobrain1

It’s been a busy year indeed, especially with the LHC doing it’s thing again, Hubble was repaired and there was a lot of medical research being done, even with more money being invested in advertising than research. However, last year was also remarkable for the… not so remarkable studies, to say the least. In that line, here are the best ‘Duh!’ studies that took place in 2009.

Coed dorms fuel sex and drinking

party

That’s right folks, coed dorms are way more fun than regular ones
I mean, coed dorms are bad, encouraging unhealthy habits that might be avoided otherwise. Detailed in the Journal of American College Health, this stunning discovery sheds new light … aww c’mon, everybody knows it: they’re the party center of the universe ! And even if nothing else, there’s hormone filled students, boys and girls, living literally meters away from each other – things are bound to happen. Nice pick, captain.

Sweets taste better when you’re high

weedzIn a study that’s completely unrelated to the previous one (cross my heart), Yuzo Ninomiya of Kyushu University in Japan spent quite a lot of time to find out what 1 in 3 students could have told you on the spot: sweets taste absolutely great after you’ve smoked some pot. What the study basically found was that “endocannabinoids both act in the brain to increase appetite and also modulate taste receptors on the tongue to increase the response to sweets”; endocannabinoids also make it impossible to read that sentence.

Large quantities of red and processed meat are bad for you

redmeat

Yeah, that double hamburger is a cruel mistress, isn’t it ? Studies published in the Archives of Internal Medicine announced that consuming large quantities of such products can cause a huge number of problems, such as, well… death.

“For overall mortality, 11 percent of deaths in men and 16 percent of deaths in women could be prevented if people decreased their red meat consumption” the researchers wrote.

High heels lead to foot pain

woman-in-high-heels

In what is the mother of all no-brainers, a study published in Arthritis Care & Research concluded that woman wearing high heels are more likely to report pain their feet. I really don’t want to add anything more here except for the fact that as far as I’m concerned, high heels are a useless fashion trifle, and have nothing at all to do with beauty.

Child with depressive parents are affected

depressive

Unfortunately, the effect parents have on their children is underestimated and often neglected (at least partially); few things can be worse than having a depressed parent, and kids have an innate sense that allows them to feel this kind of things, even though you may try to hide it. Among others, the child tends to feel more responsible, which puts more pressure on him, more alone, and have lower expectations.